« This 23rdissue of Graphisme en France addresses logotypes and visual identities for the first time — a subject central to the work of graphic designers. This vast subject is looked at from a number of angles, providing a broad understanding of its origins and practices rather than an exhaustive study. Roger R. Remington, historian and director of the Vignelli Center for Design Studies, surveys the origins and evolution of visual identities in the USA, while a text by the immensely influential American designer Paul Rand, dating from 1991, provides insight into his standpoint, about which he wrote extensively. Vivien Philizot, himself a designer and researcher within the field of visual studies, provides an overview of the history of logos, deciphering their impact and meaning within our visual environment. Ruedi Baur, designer and creator of numerous visual identities for companies in France and abroad, shares his recommendations in the light of his experience. And lastly, the designer Martin Lorenz, discusses his work on flexible visual identities as a result of the spread of digitalisation. The graphic designers of this issue, Elsa Aupetit and Martin Plagnol, both graduated from the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 2012, before setting up[…] ».